Bringing together in one volume the latest research and information, this book provides a detailed guide to the selection and use of aggregates in concrete. After an introduction defining the purpose and role of aggregates in concrete, the authors present an overview of aggregate sources and production techniques, followed by a detailed study of their physical, mechanical and chemical properties. This knowledge is then applied to the use of aggregates in both plastic and hardened concretes, and in the overall mix design. Special aggregates and their applications are discussed in detail, as are the current main specifications, standards and tests.
Concrete is the most used man-made material in the world since its invention. The widespread use of this material has led to continuous developments such as ultra-high strength concrete and self-compacting concrete. Recycled Aggregate in Concrete: Use of Industrial, Construction and Demolition Waste focuses on the recent development which the use of various types of recycled waste materials as aggregate in the production of various types of concrete. By drawing together information and data from various fields and sources, Recycled Aggregate in Concrete: Use of Industrial, Construction and Demolition Waste provides full coverage of this subject. Divided into two parts, a compilation of varied literature data related to the use of various types of industrial waste as aggregates in concrete is followed by a discussion of the use of construction and demolition waste as aggregate in concrete. The properties of the aggregates and their effect on various concrete properties are presented, and the quantitative procedure to estimate the properties of concrete containing construction and demolition waste as aggregates is explained. Current codes and practices developed in various countries to use construction and demolition waste as aggregates in concrete and issues related to the sustainability of cement and concrete production are also discussed. The comprehensive information presented in Recycled Aggregate in Concrete: Use of Industrial, Construction and Demolition Waste will be helpful to graduate students, researchers and concrete technologists. The collected data will also be an essential reference for practicing engineers who face problems concerning the use of these materials in concrete production.
"The first half of the report includes a description of the various types of lightweight aggregates, the properties of lightweight concrete, the history of the expanded-clay and -shale industry and production processes. Various theories on the causes of bloating are outlined and discussed. It is concluded that in most instances the chemical analysis of a material can be used to determine whether the liquid phase formed on heating will be of a viscosity to entrap bloating gases. The compounds that release bloating gas may be carbonates, organic matter, sulphates, sulphides, hydrous minerals, or ferric oxide. The laboratory equipment and test procedures are described, and a brief account of the Palaeozoic and Pleistocene geology of Ontario and Quebec is given. The second half of the report consists of brief descriptions of the 111 locations from which 211 samples there taken, and the results of the tests made. Fifty-five samples from 30 locations show promise of being suitable raw materials for production by the rotary kiln process. Some others might be used in the sintering process"--Abstract, page i.
Lightweight aggregate concrete is undergoing something of a renaissance. Although this material has been available for many years, only now is it being used more widely. This book provides a comprehensive review of this growing field from an international perspective.
The proceedings of this major international symposium held in November 1998, provide an overview of developments in the use of concrete aggregate in the construction industry. The current disposal of wastes and industrial residues to landfill is no longer condisered sustainable. More governments throughout the world are implementing policies actively promoting the recycling of these materials, indeed, recycling of concrete as an aggregate offers an environmentally responsible and economically viable route to convert this waste to a valuable resource.
Jamaican Standard Specification for Aggregates for Concrete
In spite of the increasing use and demand for lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC), there is still a lack of adequate explanations to understand the mechanisms responsible for the strength and durability properties of LWAC. This book is written to give an overall picture of LWAC, from the historical background, aggregate production, proportioning and production of concrete, to applications in structures. Physical properties and chemical durability are described in detail. The physical properties include density, strength, shrinkage, and elasticity. Chemical durability includes resistance to acids, chloride ingress, carbonation, and freeze-thaw resistance. Fire resistance is also included, which is seldom considered, but is a very important aspect of the safety of the structure. Microstructure development and its relation to the durability properties of LWAC generally are not highlighted in the literature. The development of bonds, the microstructure with different binder systems, and different types of lightweight aggregates are explained. They show how lightweight aggregate concrete differs from normal weight concrete. The chapters on chloride ingress and freeze-thaw resistance are detailed because of the use of LWAC in offshore construction. The economical aspects of using LWAC are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the fact that although the cost of LWAC is high, the total cost of construction has to be considered, including the cost of transport, reinforcement, etc. When these are considered then LWAC becomes cheaper and attractive. The life cycle cost of the concrete is another consideration for calculating long-term savings on maintenance costs.
A S T M Standards on Mineral Aggregates Concrete and Nonbituminous Highway Materials
Author: American Society for Testing Materials. Committee C-9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates