Offers an introduction to linguistic typology that covers various linguistic domains from phonology and morphology over parts-of-speech, the NP and the VP, to simple and complex clauses, pragmatics and language change. This title also includes a discussion on methodological issues in typology.
Ideal in introductory courses dealing with grammatical structure and linguistic analysis, Introduction to Typology overviews the major grammatical categories and constructions in the world's languages. Framed in a typological perspective, the constant concern of this primary text is to underscore the similarities and differences which underlie the vast array of human languages.
This textbook provides a critical introduction to major research topics and current approaches in linguistic typology, the study of structural variation in human language and of the limits on that variation. Jae Jung Song draws on a wide range of cross-linguistic data to describe what linguistic typology has revealed both about language in general and about the rich variety of ways in which meaning and expression are achieved in the world's languages. Following an introduction to the subject matter and its history, the first part of the book explores theoretical issues and approaches, as well as practical considerations such as sampling methods and data collection. In the second part, chapters examine variation in particular phenomena, such as word order, case alignment, and evidentiality marking. Each chapter concludes with study questions and suggestions for further reading. The volume will be suitable for undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of linguistic typology and language universals, and as secondary reading for cross-linguistically focused courses in phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
The series is a platform for contributions of all kinds to this rapidly developing field. General problems are studied from the perspective of individual languages, language families, language groups, or language samples. Conclusions are the result of a deepened study of empirical data. Special emphasis is given to little-known languages, whose analysis may shed new light on long-standing problems in general linguistics.
Language is essential to human life, both as a basic social necessity and also as a powerful and complex social resource. For the Love of Language: An Introduction to Linguistics offers a comprehensive introduction to the workings of language and the role of linguistics in investigating its fundamental design. This thorough and engaging investigation into language and linguistics covers topics including: • strategies for learning about how language works • using linguistics to address real-world problems • the structure and meaning of words • the systems that organise language • changes to language over time • how language is used in written and spoken communication • the links between language, the mind and the world. Written by authors with extensive academic experience in the field of linguistics and including examples from Australia, New Zealand and around the world to engage the reader, For the Love of Language is a lively yet comprehensive resource for undergraduate students in foundation linguistics.
“Greenberg’s survey of the earlier history of typology is without rivals, a must read for every linguist who is curious about the intellectual roots of current typology. This wouldn’t be a work by Greenberg if it didn’t go far beyond simple historiography, providing a highly original and readable framework for understanding the earlier efforts.” Prof. Dr. Martin Haspelmath, Max-Planck-Institut für Evolutionäre Anthropologie
This book considers how far social factors explain why human societies produce different kinds of language at different times and places and why some languages and dialects get simpler while others get more complex. It does so in the context of a wide range of languages and societies.
This volume offers a comprehensive account of the typology of noun classification across the world's languages. Every language has some means of categorizing objects into humans, or animates, or by their shape, form, size, and function. The most widespread are linguistic genders - grammatical classes of nouns based on core semantic properties such as sex (female and male), animacy, humanness, and also shape and size. Classifiers of several types also serve to categorize entities. Numeral classifiers occur with number words, possessive classifiers appear in the expressions of possession, and verbal classifiers are used on a verb, categorizing its argument. These varied sorts of genders and classifiers can also occur together. This volume elaborates on the expression, usage, history, and meanings of noun categorization devices, exploring their various facets across the languages of South America and Asia, which are known for the diversity of their noun categorization. The volume begins with a typological introduction that outlines the types of noun categorization devices and their expression, scope, functions, and development, as well as sociocultural aspects of their use. The following nine chapters provide in-depth studies of genders and classifiers of different types in a range of South American and Asian languages and language families, including Arawak languages, Zamucoan, Hmong, and Japanese.
Languages can be similar in many ways - they can resemble each other in categories, constructions and meanings, and in the actual forms used to express these. A shared feature may be based on common genetic origin, or result from geographic proximity and borrowing. Some aspects of grammar are spread more readily than others. The question is - which are they? When languages are in contact with each other, what changes do we expect to occur in their grammatical structures? Only an inductively based cross-linguistic examination can provide an answer. This is what this volume is about. The book starts with a typological introduction outlining principles of contact-induced change and factors which facilitate diffusion of linguistic traits. It is followed by twelve studies of contact-induced changes in languages from Amazonia, East and West Africa, Australia, East Timor, and the Sinitic domain. Set alongside these are studies of Pennsylvania German spoken by Mennonites in Canada in contact with English, Basque in contact with Romance languages in Spain and France, and language contact in the Balkans. All the studies are based on intensive fieldwork, and each cast in terms of the typological parameters set out in the introduction. The book includes a glossary to facilitate its use by graduates and advanced undergraduates in linguistics and in disciplines such as anthropology.