With classroom response systems (or CRSs, also known as Student Response Systems, Individual Response Systems, or, informally, “clickers”) in use in higher education for some 20 years, there is now both ample research and a wealth of examples and ideas to draw on for faculty who are contemplating their use, or exploring new ways to integrate them in their teaching. The research demonstrates that, integrated purposefully in courses, the use of clickers aligns with what neuroscience tells us about the formation of memory and the development of learning. In addition, they elicit contributions from otherwise reticent students and enhance collaboration, even in large lecture courses; foster more honest responses to discussion prompts; increase students’ engagement and satisfaction with the classroom environment; and provide an instantaneous method of formative assessment. This book presents a brief history of the development of CRSs and a survey of empirical research to provide a context for current best practices, and then presents seven chapters providing authentic, effective examples of the use of clickers across a wide range of academic disciplines, demonstrating how they can be effective in helping students to recognize their misconceptions and grasp fundamental concepts. Like all pedagogical interventions, classroom response systems are no panacea, and the experienced contributors candidly describe avoidable pitfalls while demonstrating how clickers can deepen student learning and how, by providing instantaneous feedback, they enable teachers to make adjustments on the fly to better address student understandings or misunderstandings. The final chapter explores pros and cons of response systems that use mobile devices and smart phones, and the book concludes with an annotated list of further resources, such as books, articles, and videos.
Clickers (Classroom Response Systems) have become one of the most widely adopted new classroom teaching technologies. This book provides information on how to successfully teach using clicker technology, looking at: the benefits of using clickers; the clicker experience at other schools; research on clicker usage; and more.
Are you looking for new ways to engage your students? Classroom voting can be a powerful way to enliven your classroom, by requiring all students to consider a question, discuss it with their peers, and vote on the answer during class. When used in the right way, students engage more deeply with the material, and have fun in the process, while you get valuable feedback when you see how they voted. But what are the best strategies to integrate voting into your lesson plans? How do you teach the full curriculum while including these voting events? How do you find the right questions for your students? This collection includes papers from faculty at institutions across the country, teaching a broad range of courses with classroom voting, including college algebra, precalculus, calculus, statistics, linear algebra, differential equations, and beyond. These faculty share their experiences and explain how they have used classroom voting to engage students, to provoke discussions, and to improve how they teach mathematics. This volume should be of interest to anyone who wants to begin using classroom voting as well as people who are already using it but would like to know what others are doing. While the authors are primarily college-level faculty, many of the papers could also be of interest to high school mathematics teachers. --Publisher description.
Using clickers in the Classroom to Increase the Level of Student Interaction
Interaction is crucial in classrooms because increased interaction is linked to increased learning. Past studies report that students learn by a myriad of methods, and that it is up to the instructor to promote as many means as possible to transport the material to the students. One way in which instructors are providing information to their students is through a classroom response system (CRS), an electric transponder the size of a remote control. The CRS allows users to respond and interact with the push of a button. This study looked at educational institutions using CRS, in order to identify the distinctive characteristics that are analyzed to value its effectiveness in a classroom environment. The information collected was examined to gain an understanding of the various uses of CRS to determine if they would be a beneficial addition to resident NPS curriculums. Also, this study employed a posttest-only independent group quasi-experimental design to test the effects of clickers in the classroom. Specifically, clicker use was studied to determine what impact, if any, their use would have on student interaction in the classroom, student engagement, student motivation, perceived teacher immediacy, course liking, and students' overall evaluation of the clickers. The findings and implications of this study are discussed.
"Education is fundamentally relational, and the student-teacher relationship is central to student learning. However, high-enrollment classrooms, now common on college campuses, limit student-faculty interaction and opportunities for relationship building. "Clickers" facilitate communication in large classes, but there is a lack of research on the potential relational functions of this technology. This study addresses this gap in the literature by asking: How might the use of clickers in the classroom contribute to the student-teacher relationship? Employing a mixed-method descriptive research design, I created and analyzed three data sets to respond to this question: I observed 3 large clicker-based classes, surveyed students to explore their perceptions of clicker use and student-teacher relational dimensions, and I interviewed a subset of students for assistance interpreting the results. Data analyses resulted in four general findings: clickers can be used for multiple purposes and ends; clickers facilitate aspects of the student-teacher pedagogical relationship; clicker communication is not perceived as comprising a student-teacher relationship; and clickers are viewed as a tool for collective rather than individual communication and dialogue. Clickers may have value as relational tools, as they facilitate some aspects of the student-teacher relationship. The frame of the technology may explain why only some relational dimensions are facilitated, and not others. More research is needed to explore how clickers and other educational technologies may facilitate the student-teacher relationship."--Abstract from author supplied metadata.
There is a need in the higher education arena for a book that responds to the need for using technology in a classroom of tech-savvy students. This book is filled with illustrative examples of questions and teaching activities that use classroom response systems from a variety of disciplines (with a discipline index). The book also incorporates results from research on the effectiveness of the technology for teaching. Written for instructional designers and re-designers as well as faculty across disciplines. A must-read for anyone interested in interactive teaching and the use of clickers. This book draws on the experiences of countless instructors across a wide range of disciplines to provide both novice and experienced teachers with practical advice on how to make classes more fun and more effective.”--Eric Mazur, Balkanski Professor of Physics and Applied Physics, Harvard University, and author, Peer Instruction: A User’s Manual “Those who come to this book needing practical advice on using ‘clickers’ in the classroom will be richly rewarded: with case studies, a refreshing historical perspective, and much pedagogical ingenuity. Those who seek a deep, thoughtful examination of strategies for active learning will find that here as well—in abundance. Dr. Bruff achieves a marvelous synthesis of the pragmatic and the philosophical that will be useful far beyond the life span of any single technology.” --Gardner Campbell, Director, Academy for Teaching and Learning, and Associate Professor of Literature, Media, and Learning, Honors College, Baylor University
A Study Of The Impact Of An Electronic Classroom Response System On Student Participation In Class Discussions And Response On Course Assessments
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact that a classroom response system, often referred to as “clickers”, had on student participation and overall student assessment. This quantitative study was designed to compare and contrast two classes of high school students over a semester time period. One of the classes was equipped with the clicker technology and used the devices frequently during the semester, while the other class had no access to the technology at any point during the semester. The three research questions that were used to guide this study were: How does the use of clickers in the classroom impact the extent of student participation in classroom discussions? How does the use of clickers in the classroom impact the quality of student participation in classroom discussions? How does the use of clickers in the classroom impact student learning of course content? The results from this study suggest that the use of clickers can increase student participation, but had no direct affect on the achievement level of a student. Results also showed that clicker technology did not increase the quality of classroom discussions when compared to discussions taking place in a non clicker classroom. This study can be useful for educators that are considering implementing a classroom response system into their classroom.
Lectures can be an efficient means to introduce new material, however they do not allow for all students to actively participate. Some students are engaged in answering questions and asking them during lecture, but many are not. They passively sit and observe. Without their participation it is difficult for the instructor to gauge their understanding. The purpose of this study was to see if the use of student electronic response systems could help students increase their understanding and retention of the biology curriculum. An electronic student response system involving clickers was used over the course of a semester. Exam scores, student interviews, and surveys were used to evaluate their effectiveness. A comparison of exam scores did not show a statistically significant difference. Student and teacher opinions were very positive as a large majority of student respondents said that clickers help to engage them in the learning process.
Improving Student Learning Outcomes Through Personal Response Systems clickers
"The main purpose of this research was to examine the impact of Personal Response Systems (PRS) or clickers, (as they are commonly called), on student learning outcome. Student learning outcomes as measured by course grades were compared between traditional lecture format and clicker use lecture format. Student perceptions on clicker use were observed in the mean time. Statistical analysis indicated that although student conveyed positive attitude on clicker adoption, there were no significant differences in course scores between students who used clickers and students who did not. This study also considered the influence of other factors, such as gender, student year, class size, class level in conjunction with the two lecture styles to gain insight into clicker usage. None of analyzed factors significantly affect course grades. In addition, the adoption/non-adoption of clickers does not significant affect student learning outcomes regardless of a student's gender, year, class size, and class level. Two surveys were conducted - one after first test and the other at the end of semester for all the classes who adopted clickers in the lecture. The survey results indicate that students perceive that the use of clickers in the classroom improved their learning outcome and their perceptions toward the usage of clickers did not change over time. In summary, the results in this study suggested that students subjectively had a positive experience with using clickers, but clicker adoption did not improve student objective course grade. However, it is suggested that instructors adopt clickers with caution"--Abstract, leaf iii.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of audience response systems on the secondary classroom. High school students (n=61) participated in one of three groups: (1) a control group, which heard traditional lectures with verbal questions only, (2) a clicker group, which had questions displayed and used clickers to answer, and (3) a questions only group, which had questions displayed but used slips of paper to answer the question. ANOVA was used to analyze various sources of data, including: test scores, post-test scores, and others, and it was found that there was no statistical difference between the control and two treatment groups. A focus group (n=4) was held to gather qualitative data. Students in the focus group indicated that they enjoyed using clickers for various reasons. Focus group participants indicated that clickers allowed for increased interaction between students and teacher and between students, the graphs allowed students to understand how they performed compared to the class, and gave opportunities for competition. More data needs to be collected on the use of clickers and how the discussion they foster might lead to increased learning.