Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. In social science generally and linguistics specifically, the cooperative principle describes how people interact with one another. As phrased by Paul Grice, who introduced it, it states, "Make your contribution such as it is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged." Though phrased as a prescriptive command, the principle is intended as a description of how people normally behave in conversation. Listeners and speakers must speak cooperatively and mutually accept one another to be understood in a particular way. The cooperative principle describes how effective communication in conversation is achieved in common social situations. The cooperative principle can be divided into four maxims, called the Gricean maxims, describing specific rational principles observed by people who obey the cooperative principle; these principles enable effective communication. Grice proposed four conversational maxims that arise from the pragmatics of natural language. The Gricean Maxims are a way to explain the link between utterances and what is understood from them.
The Cooperative Principle Not Opposed to a True Political Economy Or Remarks on Some Recent Publications on Subjects Relative to the Intercommunion of Labour Capital and Consumption
Author: Charles MARRIOTT (Vicar of St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford.)
USING GRICE’S COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE AND ITS MAXIMS FOR ANALYZING COHERENCE: A STUDY ON ACADEMIC WRITING Özhan, Didem M.A., Program in English Language Teaching Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Þükriye Ruhi September 2004, 95 pages Coherence in written discourse is considered to be a complex and a fuzzy concept but it is, at the same time, a crucial feature of any well-written text. The present study aims to contribute to the field of the teaching of the concept of coherence by proposing an approach to analyzing coherence in students’ essays in the context of the Department of Modern Languages (DML) at Middle East Technical University (METU) and to the teaching of the concept. The study suggests an approach involving Gricean maxims for analyzing coherence in freshman student argumentative essays at DML at METU. In order to achieve this aim, 50 essays were rated for coherence by two raters and the same essays were analyzed by the researcher for maxim violations. Next, the correlation between the raters’ judgments and the number of maxim violations in each essay and the correlation between raters’ judgments and the number of violations for each maxim in each essay was calculated. The findings revealed a significant negative correlation between the variables and a negative correlation between the violation of Quantity maxim most frequently and the raters’ judgments. The findings suggest that Gricean maxims can be used as a tool for analyzing coherence in student argumentative essays. The implications of this finding for the analysis of the essays, for the teaching, learning and assessment processes are discussed.
A Pragmatic Study of the Cooperative Principle and Grice s Maxims in Lois Lowry s The Giver
The purpose of this study is to examine the language of literary texts based on the pragmatic theories; Cooperative Principle and Grice's maxims. The researcher collected data from a science fiction novel, The Giver by Los Lowry. The findings reveal that most of the time, Lowry made the characters disobey Grice's maxims and the Cooperative Principle. Observance of the maxims was less than failure to observe the maxims. Lowry had her characters fail to observe the maxims for specific purposes such as generating new implicatures, hiding the truth for a period, or persuading and convincing the readers about a message Lowry wanted to convey.