The plan to hold a conference on cosmic plasma physics originated in the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society, whose chairman, B. Lehnert, took the first steps towards its realization. - ESRIN readily adopted this idea, and preliminary contacts with a number of other groups showed that there was a good deal of interest in bringing to gether people working in different areas of the field of cosmic plasma physics. It was clearly felt that an exchange of views and experience, and an attempt to define problem areas, would be profitable. In this spirit a programme was de vised which covered a large variety of topics, ranging from ionospheric to galactic structures. A diversified programme of this kind runs the risk that the communication between the various fields of specialization remains insufficient. It was gratifying to find that within the wide field of cosmic plasma physics a lively dialogue was in fact possible. The Conference was sponsored by the European Physical Society. Financial support was provided by ESRO. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the excellent suggestions of the programme committee members L. Biermann, N. D'Angelo, R. Gendrin, and B. Lehnert. I should like to thank my colleagues B. Bertotti, K. Lackner, and J.F. McKenzie, and numerous other ESRIN staff members, for their valuable help. I feel particularly indebted to the conference secretary, Miss Sachs, who did the real work while I just signed the letters.
The general background of this monograph and the aim of it is described in detail in Chapter I. As stated in 1.7 it is written according to the principle that "when rigour appears to conflict with simplicity, simplicity is given preference", which means that it is intended for a rather broad public. Not only graduate students but also advanced undergraduates should be able to understand at least most of it. This monograph is the result of many years of inspiring discussions with a number of colleagues, for which I want to thank them very much. Especially I should mention the groups in Stockholm and La Jolla: in Stockholm, Dr Carl-Gunne Flilthammar and many of his collaborators, including Drs Lars Block, Per Carlqvist, Lennart lindberg, Michael Raadu, Staffan Torven, Miroslav Babic, and Itlgvar Axniis, and further, Drs Bo Lehnert and Bjorn Bonnevier, all at the Royal Institute of Technology. Of other col leagues in Sweden, I should mention Dr Bertel Laurent, Stockholm University, Dr Aina Elvius, The Stockholm Observatory, and Dr Bengt Hultqvist, Kiruna. In La Jolla my thanks go first of all to Dr Gustaf Arrhenius, who once invited me to La Jolla, which was the start of a most interesting collaboration; further, to Dr W.B.
This unusual book considers physical principles, starting from the most general ones, and simplifies assumptions, helping students answer two key questions: what approximation is the simplest, but still sufficient for the description of a phenomenon in cosmic plasmas, and how to build an adequate model.
Today many scientists recognize plasma as the key element to understanding new observations in near-Earth, interplanetary, interstellar, and intergalactic space; in stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies, and throughout the observable universe. Physics of the Plasma Universe, 2nd Edition is an update of observations made across the entire cosmic electromagnetic spectrum over the two decades since the publication of the first edition. It addresses paradigm changing discoveries made by telescopes, planetary probes, satellites, and radio and space telescopes. The contents are the result of the author's 37 years research at Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This book covers topics such as the large-scale structure and the filamentary universe; the formation of magnetic fields and galaxies, active galactic nuclei and quasars, the origin and abundance of light elements, star formation and the evolution of solar systems, and cosmic rays. Chapters 8 and 9 are based on the research of Professor Gerrit Verschuur, and reinvestigation of the manifestation of interstellar neutral hydrogen filaments from radio astronomical observations are given. Using data from the Green Bank 100-m telescope (GBT) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), detailed information is presented for a non-cosmological origin for the cosmic microwave background quadruple moment. This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in the areas of cosmic plasmas and space science. The supercomputer and experimental work was carried out within university, National laboratory, Department of Energy, and supporting NASA facilities.
COSMIC PLASMA PHYSICS PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE SPONSORED BY THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY
This two-part book is devoted to classic fundamentals and current practices and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. This first part uniquely covers all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and work in plasma astrophysics. More than 25% of the text is updated from the first edition, including new figures, equations and entire sections on topics such as magnetic reconnection and the Grad-Shafranov equation. The book is aimed at professional researchers in astrophysics, but it will also be useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, applied physics and mathematics, especially those seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.