For more than two thousand years, drinking has played a critical role in Andean societies. This collection provides a unique look at the history, ethnography, and archaeology of one of the most important traditional indigenous commodities in Andean South America--fermented plant beverages collectively known as chicha. The authors investigate how these forms of alcohol have played a huge role in maintaining gender roles, kinship bonds, ethnic identities, exchange relationships, and status hierarchies. They also consider how shifts in alcohol production, exchange, and consumption have precipitated social change.Unique among foodways studies for its extensive temporal coverage, Drink, Power, and Society in the Andes also brings together scholars from diverse theoretical, methodological, and regional perspectives.
Alcohol and Its Role in the Evolution of Human Society
Archaelogists and anthropologists (especially ethnologists) have for many years realised that man's ingestion of alcoholic beverages may well have played a significant part in his transition from hunter-gatherer to agriculturalist. This unique book provides a scientific text on the subject of 'ethanol' that also aims to include material designed to show 'non-scientists' what fermentation is all about. Conversely, scientists may well be surprised to find the extent to which ethanol has played a part in evolution and civilisation of our species.
Alcohol use has a long and ubiquitous history. The prevailing tendency to view alcohol merely as a 'social problem' or the popular notion that alcohol only serves to provide us with a 'hedonic' high, masks its importance in the social fabric of many human societies both past and present. To understand alcohol use, as a complex social practice that has been exploited by humans for thousands of years, requires cross-disciplinary insight from social/cultural anthropologists, archaeologists, historians, psychologists, primatologists, and biologists. This multi-disciplinary volume examines the broad use of alcohol in the human lineage and its wider relationship to social contexts such as feasting, sacred rituals, and social bonding. Alcohol abuse is a small part of a much more complex and social pattern of widespread alcohol use by humans. This alone should prompt us to explore the evolutionary origins of this ancient practice and the socially functional reasons for its continued popularity. The objectives of this volume are: (1) to understand how and why nonhuman primates and other animals use alcohol in the wild, and its relevance to understanding the social consumption of alcohol in humans; (2) to understand the social function of alcohol in human prehistory; (3) to understand the sociocultural significance of alcohol across human societies; and (4) to explore the social functions of alcohol consumption in contemporary society. 'Alcohol in Humans' will be fascinating reading for those in the fields of biology, psychology, anthropology, archaeology, as well as those with a broader interest in addiction.
Introduction : food for thought -- Part I. How did food shape us as humans? : food in human evolution -- Hunters and scavengers : the true "caveman" diet -- Little house on the savanna : fire, grandmothers, and homo erectus -- Big game and small houses in the upper Paleolithic -- Part II. What role did food play in past human societies? : the prehistory of food -- Domesticating humans : the origins of the agricultural lifestyle -- "Drinking beer in a blissful mood" : feasts and fancy meals in the past -- The taste of power : cuisine, class, and conquest -- Foods of the gods and sacred meals -- Daily bread : everyday meals, gender, and identity in the past - Conclusion : we are what we ate.
When Spaniards invaded their realm in 1532, the Incas ruled the largest empire of the pre-Columbian Americas. Just over a century earlier, military campaigns began to extend power across a broad swath of the Andean region, bringing local societies into new relationships with colonists and officials who represented the Inca state. With Cuzco as its capital, the Inca empire encompassed a multitude of peoples of diverse geographic origins and cultural traditions dwelling in the outlying provinces and frontier regions. Bringing together an international group of well-established scholars and emerging researchers, this handbook is dedicated to revealing the origins of this empire, as well as its evolution and aftermath. Chapters break new ground using innovative multidisciplinary research from the areas of archaeology, ethnohistory and art history. The scope of this handbook is comprehensive. It places the century of Inca imperial expansion within a broader historical and archaeological context, and then turns from Inca origins to the imperial political economy and institutions that facilitated expansion. Provincial and frontier case studies explore the negotiation and implementation of state policies and institutions, and their effects on the communities and individuals that made up the bulk of the population. Several chapters describe religious power in the Andes, as well as the special statuses that staffed the state religion, maintained records, served royal households, and produced fine craft goods to support state activities. The Incas did not disappear in 1532, and the volume continues into the Colonial and later periods, exploring not only the effects of the Spanish conquest on the lives of the indigenous populations, but also the cultural continuities and discontinuities. Moving into the present, the volume ends will an overview of the ways in which the image of the Inca and the pre-Columbian past is memorialized and reinterpreted by contemporary Andeans.
In this book, Justin Jennings argues that globalization is not just a phenomenon limited to modern times. Instead he contends that the globalization of today is just the latest in a series of globalizing movements in human history. Using the Uruk, Mississippian, and Wari civilizations as case studies, Jennings examines how the growth of the world's first great cities radically transformed their respective areas. The cities required unprecedented exchange networks, creating long-distance flows of ideas, people, and goods. These flows created cascades of interregional interaction that eroded local behavioral norms and social structures. New, hybrid cultures emerged within these globalized regions. Although these networks did not span the whole globe, people in these areas developed globalized cultures as they interacted with one another. Jennings explores how understanding globalization as a recurring event can help in the understanding of both the past and the present.