In the 11th century, Kiev closely adhered to the Byzantine traditions in producing the first Russian enamels. Progress was interrupted by the Mongol invasions in the 13th century. There was, however, a revival of the arts in the 16th century, and during the 17th century the Kremlin Armory in Moscow and various northern trading centers emerged as major bases for the manufacture of liturgical and secular enamels, while the program of westernization initiated by Peter the Great in the early 18th century attracted foreign artisans who brought their own techniques to the capital, St Petersburg. The 19th century closed with a dichotomy of styles: classicizing, courtly traditions flourished in St Petersburg, as demonstrated in the art of pre-eminent master Carl Faberge. However, Moscow served as the heart of the Russian Revival movement, and the vibrantly colored and exotic-looking revival enamels are also prized by collectors today.
Index of Trademarks Issued from the United States Patent Office
Limoges enamels, the richest surviving corpus of medieval metalwork, were renowned throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. Yet today they are little known outside academic circles. The present volume, published in conjuction with the exhibition Enamels of Limoges, 1100-1350, brings to deserved public attention nearly two hundred of the most important and representative examples from the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Musee du Louvre, the great church.
Used to embellish objects of great value and importance, enamelling is an artistic process that has been in existence for more than 1000 years. Craftsmen from throughout the world have experimented with this complex process that fuses layers of coloured glass to metal.Erika Speel, a leading expert in the field, has taken on the enormous task of interpreting the vast history associated with enamelling to produce the first single reference volume that surveys the entire period, and production methods, of the medium.Featuring 80 illustrations, Painted Enamels is an invaluable reference volume for all those who collect, study, create or enjoy enamels.