A practical handbook for healthcare professionals that covers all aspects of pre-term nutrition, using evidence-based information to promote safe and effective practice. Readers will discover problem-solving strategies, interventions, and information on meeting the nutritional requirements of pre-term infants. Easily accessible information on all aspects of pre-term and neonatal nutrition Includes the latest research-based information on mammary physiology and the dynamics of milk expression Discusses the nutritional requirements of the pre-term breastfed infant - and how to succeed in meeting these needs Provides effective interventions to prevent pre-term breastfeeding failures Problem-solving strategies ensure a smooth transition from nasogastric to breastfeeding
The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm annually and this number is rising. Feeding the preterm infant is a challenge. Outside the womb prematurely, normal nutrient delivery through the placenta ceases, and the preterm infant's immature gastrointestinal tract precludes the establishment of enteral feeding, leading to postnatal growth failure in substantial proportions just when preterm infants are ready for discharge. Suboptimal growth in the crucial early years is deemed as leading cause of poor cognitive and developmental outcomes. The availability of parenteral nutrition is essential in the care of these infants. Prompt administration of parenteral nutrition from the first day of life minimizes weight loss and results in better short-term growth. The author, a practicing neonatologist believes that transitioning from parenteral to enteral feeding is best achieved with the use of breast milk. Breast milk also significantly reduces the incidence of a life-threatening bowel disease: necrotizing enterocolitis. However, breast milk has inadequate calories and minerals for the rapidly growing preterm infant, and fortification is necessary to curtail growth restriction development. This book presents unique, real-life scenarios in discussing commonly encountered feeding problems and suggests strategies to enhance nutritional intervention to optimize growth of the preterm infant.
Nutritional Care of Preterm Infants
Author: B. Koletzko
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Improved conditions of care for premature infants have led to markedly increased survival rates over the last few decades, particularly in very low and extremely low birth weight infants. Nutritional measures play a central role in the long-term outcome, health and quality of life of these premature infants. In this publication, leading experts from all 5 continents present the most recent evidence and critical analyses of nutrient requirements and the practice of nutritional care (with the focus on very low birth weight infants) to provide guidance for clinical application. After the introductory chapters, covering nutritional needs and research evidence in a more general manner, topics such as amino acids and proteins, lipids, microminerals and vitamins, parenteral and enteral nutrition as well as approaches to various disease conditions are addressed. Due to its focus on critical appraisals and recommendations, this book is of interest not only for the researcher who wants to keep up to date, but also for the clinician faced with premature infants in his practice.
Survival of extremely premature neonates has improved significantly following the advances in neonatal intensive care. Extrauterine growth restriction is a serious issue in this population. Nutritional exposures during critical period of life influence the individual’s risk of disease throughout life. Nutritional deficit and poor growth are associated with long term neurodevelopmental impairment, short stature and metabolic disorders in extremely preterm neonates. Optimising nutrition in the early postnatal life of the preterm neonate is therefore a priority. However this is easier said than done considering the frequency of feed intolerance, fear of necrotising enterocolitis, and the hesitancy in adopting an aggressive approach to parenteral nutrition in this population. Some of the finest researchers in the field have come together to provide the clinical perspective on the A to Z of nutrition in the preterm neonate in simple and clear fashion in this book.
Ultrasound in Liquid and Solid Metals focuses on the effect of intensive ultrasound on metals, including the analysis of the development of cavitation and acoustic flows in melts, mechanism of metals' spraying and crystallization, the formation of dislocation structure in crystals, diffusion, phase transformation, and plastic deformation. Physical fundamentals of intensive ultrasound effects are covered, and detailed discussions are presented on the engineering principles of equipment and material design for the practical use of ultrasound in the refining of melts, crystallization of ingots and molds, pulverization, plating, pressure working of metals, surface strengthening, and other processes.
Human Milk in the Feeding of Preterm Infants Established and Debated Aspects
Neonatal nutrition has a pivotal role in normal child development and is of even greater importance in the sick or premature neonate. This 2006 edition includes a comprehensive account of the basic science, metabolism and nutritional requirements of the neonate, and a greatly expanded number of chapters dealing in depth with clinical issues ranging from IUGR, intravenous feeding, nutritional therapies for inborn errors of metabolism, and care of the neonatal surgical patient. Evolving from these scientific and clinical aspects, the volume highlights the important long-term effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function.
Core Curriculum for Neonatal Intensive Care Nursing
Author: Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses
Perfect as a resource in the field or for exam preparation, this authoritative reference from the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) includes in-depth coverage of the most common neonatal disorders and their management. The concise outline format highlights the essentials of each condition including definition, etiology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatments, and outcomes to help you find important information quickly. Coverage of key content on the neonatal intensive care nursing certification exam prepares you for test success. Information on families, ethics, legal issues, research, case management, and the transition to home emphasizes the importance of total care of the neonatal patient and family. New and updated content on late preterm infants, neurologic disorders, and ventilatory strategies provide the latest information from the field for more effective patient outcomes.
This exciting book, edited by Fiona Dykes and Victoria Hall Moran and with a foreword from Gretel Pelto, explores in an integrated context the varied factors associated with infant and child nutrition, including global feeding strategies, cultural factors, issues influencing breastfeeding, and economic and life cycle influences