Each year nearly 2.5 million elementary school children are failed. Economic analyses suggest that this costs taxpayers over US$20 billion each year. Given the recent political momentum pushing for increased standards and accountability in our schools, actions toward an "end to social promotion" are occurring nationally. However, the research during the past 30 years fails to demonstrate the effectiveness of early grade retention as an academic intervention. In addition to the economic and structural problems created by ineffective focus on retention, this practice and policy also has significal educational repercussions for students. Grade Retention and Social Promotion examines retention as an academic intervention, presenting perspectives on the long history of research regarding the efficacy of this strategy, as well as new thinking on the topic. Drawing on both socio-emotional and academic outcomes over the years, this book presents the first complete book account of the theory and practice behind grade retention, as well as the obvious and more subtle practical outcomes. For the very first time, this book brings together current research on this controversial practice affecting teachers and students nationwide. Shane Jimerson is Professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the Department of Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology in the Gevirtz Graduate School of Education Aaron Haddock is currently completing a Ph.D. program in Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara
The Effects of Grade Retention and Social Promotion on Student Academic Achievement
The New York City Department of Education asked RAND to conduct an independent longitudinal evaluation of its 5th-grade promotion policy. The findings of that study, conducted between March 2006 and August 2009, provide a comprehensive view of the policy's implementation and its impact on student outcomes, particularly for students at risk of retention and those who were retained in grade.
Complexities of Educators Beliefs Perceptions and Experiences on Social Promotion and Grade Retention
While there have been mixed and numerous results in the literature on grade retention, the implementation of social promotion and its effects on students and teaching and learning needs further study. The purpose of the study was to examine educators' perceptions of grade retention and social promotion. This study, in a small suburban predominantly Latino student school district in Southern California, used qualitative (interviews) and quantitative (surveys) methods in relation to educator perceptions of social promotion and grade retention. Educators generally reported neutral views of grade retention. Administrators and counselors tended to view grade retention more negatively than teachers. Themes generated from interviews included students with mixed ability levels are mixed in classrooms and are socially promoted, challenges of social promotion, school interventions or programs to assist students who are socially promoted, and early-on parental engagement and awareness of social promotion. Themes that emerged from both quantitative and qualitative findings were knowledge of state and local policies, perceptions and beliefs about grade retention, the impact of possible grade retention, and the role of student maturity in grade retention. The educators made some recommendations that school and district policy makers might consider: social promotion decreases motivation, classes should be made into more homogenous environments that are more conducive to teaching and learning, and the possible threat of grade retention might motivate students, parents, and teachers.
The sociology of education is a rich interdisciplinary field that studies schools as their own social world as well as their place within the larger society. The field draws contributions from education, sociology, human development, family studies, economics, politics and public policy. Sociology of Education: An A-to-Z Guide introduces students to the social constructions of our educational systems and their many players, including students and their peers, teachers, parents, the broader community, politicians and policy makers. The roles of schools, the social processes governing schooling, and impacts on society are all critically explored. Despite an abundance of textbooks and specialized monographs, there are few up-to-date reference works in this area. Features & Benefits: 335 signed entries fill 2 volumes in print and electronic formats, providing the most comprehensive reference resource available on this topic. Cross-References and Suggestions for Further Reading guide readers to additional resources. A thematic "Reader's Guide" groups related articles by broad topic areas as one handy search feature on the e-Reference platform, which also includes a comprehensive index of search terms, facilitating ease of use by both on-campus students and distance learners. A Chronology provides students with historical perspective on the sociology of education.