Over the last several years there has been a growing interest in developing computational methodologies for modeling and analyzing movements and behaviors of ‘crowds' of people. This interest spans several scientific areas that includes Computer Vision, Computer Graphics, and Pedestrian Evacuation Dynamics. Despite the fact that these different scientific fields are trying to model the same physical entity (i.e. a crowd of people), research ideas have evolved independently. As a result each discipline has developed techniques and perspectives that are characteristically their own. The goal of this book is to provide the readers a comprehensive map towards the common goal of better analyzing and synthesizing the pedestrian movement in dense, heterogeneous crowds. The book is organized into different parts that consolidate various aspects of research towards this common goal, namely the modeling, simulation, and visual analysis of crowds. Through this book, readers will see the common ideas and vision as well as the different challenges and techniques, that will stimulate novel approaches to fully grasping “crowds."
The two-volume set of LNCS 11941 and 11942 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence, PReMI 2019, held in Tezpur, India, in December 2019. The 131 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 341 submissions. They are organized in topical sections named: Pattern Recognition; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Soft and Evolutionary Computing; Image Processing; Medical Image Processing; Bioinformatics and Biomedical Signal Processing; Information Retrieval; Remote Sensing; Signal and Video Processing; and Smart and Intelligent Sensors.
Group and Crowd Behavior for Computer Vision provides a multidisciplinary perspective on how to solve the problem of group and crowd analysis and modeling, combining insights from the social sciences with technological ideas in computer vision and pattern recognition. The book answers many unresolved issues in group and crowd behavior, with Part One providing an introduction to the problems of analyzing groups and crowds that stresses that they should not be considered as completely diverse entities, but as an aggregation of people. Part Two focuses on features and representations with the aim of recognizing the presence of groups and crowds in image and video data. It discusses low level processing methods to individuate when and where a group or crowd is placed in the scene, spanning from the use of people detectors toward more ad-hoc strategies to individuate group and crowd formations. Part Three discusses methods for analyzing the behavior of groups and the crowd once they have been detected, showing how to extract semantic information, predicting/tracking the movement of a group, the formation or disaggregation of a group/crowd and the identification of different kinds of groups/crowds depending on their behavior. The final section focuses on identifying and promoting datasets for group/crowd analysis and modeling, presenting and discussing metrics for evaluating the pros and cons of the various models and methods. This book gives computer vision researcher techniques for segmentation and grouping, tracking and reasoning for solving group and crowd modeling and analysis, as well as more general problems in computer vision and machine learning. Presents the first book to cover the topic of modeling and analysis of groups in computer vision Discusses the topics of group and crowd modeling from a cross-disciplinary perspective, using social science anthropological theories translated into computer vision algorithms Focuses on group and crowd analysis metrics Discusses real industrial systems dealing with the problem of analyzing groups and crowds
Emotion Personality and Cultural Aspects in Crowds
This practically-focused book presents a computational model for detection and analysis of pedestrian features in crowds from video sequences. The study of human behavior is a subject of great scientific interest and probably an inexhaustible source of research. The analysis of pedestrians and groups in crowds is relevant in several areas of application, such as security, entertainment, environmental and public spaces planning and social sciences. Cultural and personality aspects are attributes that can influence personal behavior and affect the group in which individuals belong. In this sense, we consider different ways of characterizing individuals and groups in crowds with respect to their relationship with the geometrical space and time. We discuss and describe an approach to extract and analyse, from the Computer Science point of view, emotions, personalities and cultural aspects from crowds and groups of pedestrians, using Computer Vision techniques. Extracting characteristics from real pedestrians and crowds, benefits other areas, such as: architecture and design (planning spaces to maximize pedestrian and group-environment fit); security and surveillance (design of evacuation plans considering characteristics of the crowds and detection of abnormal events); entertainment (more realistic crowds in movies and games reproducing characteristics from real pedestrians and crowds); social sciences (understanding of human behavior), among others. A big challenge in this area of research is the comparison with real life data. In this book, we successfully compared the results of the proposed approach with Psychology literature, where several studies aimed to analysis human behavior.
There are many applications of computer animation and simulation where it is necessary to model virtual crowds of autonomous agents. Some of these applications include site planning, education, entertainment, training, and human factors analysis for building evacuation. Other applications include simulations of scenarios where masses of people gather, flow, and disperse, such as transportation centers, sporting events, and concerts. Most crowd simulations include only basic locomotive behaviors possibly coupled with a few stochastic actions. Our goal in this survey is to establish a baseline of techniques and requirements for simulating large-scale virtual human populations. Sometimes, these populations might be mutually engaged in a common activity such as evacuation from a building or area; other times they may be going about their individual and personal agenda of work, play, leisure, travel, or spectator. Computational methods to model one set of requirements may not mesh well with good approaches to another. By including both crowd and individual goals and constraints into a comprehensive computational model, we expect to simulate the visual texture and contextual behaviors of groups of seemingly sentient beings. Table of Contents: Introduction / Crowd Simulation Methodology Survey / Individual Differences in Crowds / Framework (HiDAC + MACES + CAROSA) / HiDAC: Local Motion / MACES: Wayfinding with Communication and Roles / CAROSA: Functional Crowds / Initializing a Scenario / Evaluating Crowds
"This book features a comprehensive review of advances in medical visualization and human-computer interaction. It investigates the human roles during a visualization process, specifically motivation-based design, user-based design, and perception-and-cognitive-based design. It also provides real-world examples and insight into the analytical and architectural aspects of user centered design"--Provided by publisher.
Methodological Guidelines for Modeling and Developing MAS-Based Simulations The intersection of agents, modeling, simulation, and application domains has been the subject of active research for over two decades. Although agents and simulation have been used effectively in a variety of application domains, much of the supporting research remains scattered in the literature, too often leaving scientists to develop multi-agent system (MAS) models and simulations from scratch. Multi-Agent Systems: Simulation and Applications provides an overdue review of the wide ranging facets of MAS simulation, including methodological and application-oriented guidelines. This comprehensive resource reviews two decades of research in the intersection of MAS, simulation, and different application domains. It provides scientists and developers with disciplined engineering approaches to modeling and developing MAS-based simulations. After providing an overview of the field’s history and its basic principles, as well as cataloging the various simulation engines for MAS, the book devotes three sections to current and emerging approaches and applications. Simulation for MAS — explains simulation support for agent decision making, the use of simulation for the design of self-organizing systems, the role of software architecture in simulating MAS, and the use of simulation for studying learning and stigmergic interaction. MAS for Simulation — discusses an agent-based framework for symbiotic simulation, the use of country databases and expert systems for agent-based modeling of social systems, crowd-behavior modeling, agent-based modeling and simulation of adult stem cells, and agents for traffic simulation. Tools — presents a number of representative platforms and tools for MAS and simulation, including Jason, James II, SeSAm, and RoboCup Rescue. Complete with over 200 figures and formulas, this reference book provides the necessary overview of experiences with MAS simulation and the tools needed to exploit simulation in MAS for future research in a vast array of applications including home security, computational systems biology, and traffic management.
"Describing the latest developments in GIS applications at the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA) at the University College, London, this book demonstrates how CASA is advancing spatial decision systems and spatial analysis, which are essential to solving problems and better understanding how people live. How these systems and analyses are drawn from archaeology, architecture, cartography, computer science, environmental science, geography, planning, remote sensing, geomatic engineering, and transport studies is explained. Highlighted are projects such as Digital Egypt, which describes virtual reality reconstructions for Egyptian archaeological finds, and Virtual cities, which explores the concepts and nature of virtual cities, from early CAD models to the newly emerging data-rich cities that merge GIS with three-dimensional visualization."
Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference on Web Based Modeling and Simulation