Scholars and statesmen have debated the influence of international commerce on war and peace for thousands of years. Over the centuries, analysts have generally treated the questions "Does international commerce influence security?" and "Do trade flows influence security?" as synonymous. In Producing Security, Stephen Brooks maintains that such an overarching focus on the security implications of trade once made sense but no longer does. Trade is no longer the primary means of organizing international economic transactions; rather, where and how multinational corporations (MNCs) organize their international production activities is now the key integrating force of global commerce. MNC strategies have changed in a variety of fundamental ways over the past three decades, Brooks argues, resulting in an increased geographic dispersion of production across borders. The author shows that the globalization of production has led to a series of shifts in the global security environment. It has a differential effect on security relations, in part because it does not encompass all countries and industries to the same extent. The book's findings indicate that the geographic dispersion of MNC production acts as a significant force for peace among the great powers. The author concludes that there is no basis for optimism that the globalization of production will promote peace elsewhere in the world. Indeed, he finds that it has a net negative influence on security relations among developing countries.
Foreign Relations of the United States 1951 European security and the German question
Author: United States. Department of State. Historical Office
The collapse of the Soviet Union, although providing a host of welcome opportunities for people of that nation, also exacerbated a number of transnational concerns just as serious as those that emanated from the bipolar hostility of the previous 50 years. Among these challenges is the marked increase in the theft of and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials, often referred to as nuclear smuggling. Prior to the early 1990s, nuclear smuggling generally involved small quantities of bogus materials or, at most, nuclear-associated materials that posed no serious danger to security. Recently, however, several disturbing incidents involving kilogram quantities of sensitive nuclear materials suitable for constructing bombs have occurred. No one doubts that hostile groups could conceivably bring weapons-usable nuclear material into the United States. Moreover, nuclear smuggling represents a possible shortcut for states such as Iran seeking plutonium or highly enriched uranium for their weapons program. The consequences of such states succeeding would be profound.
The Economics of Producing Defense: Illustrated by the Israeli Case begins with an overview of the development of defense economics as a sub-discipline of the general theory of economics, and points at the new challenges it is facing in the post-Cold War era. It focuses, then, on the supply side of defense economics, presenting theoretical analyses and empirical findings related to the use of various inputs - manpower, domestically-made defense products, imported arms - in providing national security. Most of the issues under discussion are further elucidated by examples from Israel's experience. As a small economy that faces continuously severe security problems, Israel's way of coping with defense economic issues may indeed forward some interesting lessons for a wider audience. The principal aim of the book is to convince policy-makers and the public at large of the contribution defense economics could make to more effective management of national security problems. This aim is encouraged by the growing weight attached to economic considerations and consequences in producing and supplying defense, as demonstrated in the detailed discussion.
The Fifth Report from the Select Committee on the Affairs of the East India Company
Author: Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Select Committee on the East India Company
Relationships between cities and socio-technical energy, water, waste and transport networks are changing. Global Urbanism argues that this is not something that is happening naturally but is the product of social, economic, political and spatial processes and that these changes have profound implications for the mutual organisation of urbanism and resource flows and consequently for the shape of contemporary and future cities.