Human social life is constrained and defined by our cognitive and emotional dispositions, which are the legacy of our foraging ancestors. But how difficult is it to reconstruct the social systems and cultural traditions of those ancestors? The Archaeology of Human Ancestry provides a stimulating and provocative answer, in which archaeologists and biological anthropologists set out and demonstrate their reconstructive methods. Contributors use observations of primates and modern hunter-gatherers to illuminate the fossil and artefactual records. Thematic treatment covers the evolution of group size; group composition and the emotional structure of social bonds; sexual dimorphism and the sexual division of labour; and the origins of human cultural traditions. The Archaeology of Human Ancestry is an essential introduction to the subject for advanced undergraduates and researchers in archaeology and biological anthropology. It will also be used by workers in psychology, sociology and feminist studies as a resource for understanding human social origins.
Contents include: Bifaces, booze and the blues. Anecdotes from the life and times of a Palaeolithic archaeologist ( A. J. Lawson & A. Rogerson ); J. J. W. A tribute from the Upper Thames n( R. J. MacRae ); On the Move. Theory, time averaging and resource transport at Olduvai gorge ( J. McNabb ); Elandsfontein and Klasies river revisited ( H. J. Deacon ); The Pleistocene history and early human occupation of the river Thames valley ( D. R Bridgland ); As represented by the Thames valley ( D. A. Roe ); Quaternary stratigraphy and lower Palaeolithic archaeology of the Lark valley, Suffolk ( S. G. Lewis ); Hoxne, Suffolk: Time matters ( B. Gladfelter ); Unity and diversity in the early Stone Age ( J. A. J. Gowlett ); Observations on the artefacts from the Breccia at Kent's cavern ( J. Cook & R. Jacobi ); Clactonian and Acheulian industries in Britain ( F.F. Wenban-Smith ); Twisted ovate bifaces in the British lower Palaeolithic ( M. J. White ); Handaxes and Palaeolithic individuals ( C. Gamble ); Southern Rivers ( K. Scott ); Pleistocene deposits and archaeological horizons in the Ariendorf gravel quarry ( E. Turner ); Discoidal core technology on the Paleolithic at Oldbury, Kent ( J. Cook & R. Jacobi ); The archaeology of distance: perspectives from the Welsh Palaeolithic ( S. Aldhouse-Green ); Pushing out the boat for an Irish Palaeolithic ( P. C. Woodman ); Long blade technology and the question of British late Pleistocene/ early Holocene lithic assemblages ( R. N. E. Barton ); A preboreal lithic assemblage from the lower Rhineland site of Bedburg-Konigshoven, Germany ( M. Street 0; Early Mesolithic settlement in England and Wales ( M. J. Reynier ); Early Mesolithic mastic: radiocarbon dating and analysis of organic residues from Thatcham III, Star Carr and Lackford Heath ( A. J. Roberts, R. N. E. Barton & J. Evans ); The methods used to produce a complete harpoon ( J. Lord ); Two assemblages of a later Mesolithic microliths from Seamer Carr, North Yorkshire: fact and fancy ( A. David ); Mesolithic sites at Two Mile Bottom, near Thetford, Norfolk ( P. Robbins ); Studying the Mesolithic period in Scotland ( A. Saville ); The surface of the Breckland ( F. Healy ); John Wymer, a bibliography.
Pictorial reconstructions of ancient human ancestors have twin purposes: to make sense of shared ancestry and to bring prehistory to life. Stephanie Moser analyzes the close relationship between representations of the past and theories about human evolution, showing how this relationship existed even before a scientific understanding of human origins developed. How did mythological, religious, and historically inspired visions of the past, in existence for centuries, shape this understanding? Moser treats images as primary documents, and her book is lavishly illustrated with engravings, paintings, photographs, and reconstructions. In surveying the iconography of prehistory, Moser explores visions of human creation from their origins in classical, early Christian, and medieval periods through traditions of representation initiated in the Renaissance. She looks closely at the first scientific reconstructions of the nineteenth century, which dramatized and made comprehensible the Darwinian theory of human descent from apes. She considers, as well, the impact of reconstructions on popular literature in Europe and North America, showing that early visualizations of prehistory retained a firm hold on the imagination—a hold that archaeologists and anthropologists have found difficult to shake.
Ancestry magazine focuses on genealogy for today’s family historian, with tips for using Ancestry.com, advice from family history experts, and success stories from genealogists across the globe. Regular features include “Found!” by Megan Smolenyak, reader-submitted heritage recipes, Howard Wolinsky’s tech-driven “NextGen,” feature articles, a timeline, how-to tips for Family Tree Maker, and insider insight to new tools and records at Ancestry.com. Ancestry magazine is published 6 times yearly by Ancestry Inc., parent company of Ancestry.com.
Much of what we are comes from our ancestors. Through cultural and biological inheritance mechanisms, our genetic composition, instructions for constructing artifacts, the structure and content of languages, and rules for behavior are passed from parents to children and from individual to individual. Mapping Our Ancestors demonstrates how various genealogical or "phylogenetic" methods can be used both to answer questions about human history and to build evolutionary explanations for the shape of history. Anthropologists are increasingly turning to quantitative phylogenetic methods. These methods depend on the transmission of information regardless of mode and as such are applicable to many anthropological questions. In this way, phylogenetic approaches have the potential for building bridges among the various subdisciplines of anthropology; an exciting prospect indeed. The structure of Mapping Our Ancestors reflects the editors' goal of developing a common understanding of the methods and conditions under which ancestral relations can be derived in a range of data classes of interest to anthropologists. Specifically, this volume explores the degree to which patterns of ancestry can be determined from artifactual, genetic, linguistic, and behavioral data and how processes such as selection, transmission, and geography impact the results of phylogenetic analyses. Mapping Our Ancestors provides a solid demonstration of the potential of phylogenetic methods for studying the evolutionary history of human populations using a variety of data sources and thus helps explain how cultural material, language, and biology came to be as they are. Carl P. Lipo is assistant professor of anthropology at California State University in Long Beach. Michael O'Brien is professor of anthropology and director of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Missouri. Mark Collard is assistant professor of anthropology at the University of British Columbia, Stephen J. Shennan is a professor and director of the Institute of Archaeology at the University College London. Niles Eldredge is a curator in the department of invertebrates at the American Museum of Natural History, and adjunct professor at the City University of New York.
Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey
The volume contains a selection of papers read at recent meetings of the Language Origins Society. The papers address the problem of the origins and evolution of language both as a biological capacity and as a symbol system. The discussions of these issues include approaches from such various fields as biology, ethology, linguistics, philosophy, primatology and psychology. The book is divided into three parts according to the main perspectives taken by the contributors. Part I addresses the relationship between evolution and language and deals with the problem of language origins specifically from various aspects within the framework of human evolution. Part II deals with the question of language structure and function as shaped by evolution. Part III discusses the views of three famous philosophers on language and how these views can be utilized in explanations of language origins.