During the 18th century, the Ottoman Empire sustained extensive territorial losses, and the Balkan nationalities, aided by European arms and diplomacy, began their struggle for liberation. The term "Armenian question," as used in European history, became commonplace among diplomatic circles and in the popular press after the Congress of Berlin, referring to European powers' involvement with the Armenians. The "Armenian question" remained a factor in international politics, and Russia became increasingly involved in Ottoman affairs following intervention in 1877-1878. Russia gained control over a large part of Armenia and became the champion of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, taking on the role of protector. The Armenian Question in the Caucasus: Russian Archive Documents and Publications is issued in a three volume collection as a special topic of study for the first time in world historiography. The complex topic is presented here, based on rare documents and publications which were long stored as secret and top secret in the Russian State Historical Archive (St. Petersburg) and the Russian State Military History Archive (Moscow). Volume 3 chronologically follows the period 1906-1914. It comprises two sections: the first section provides an analysis of the documents and materials. The second section contains copies of the originals from archives and publications. Many the documents and materials are now made publically available here for the first time. To guarantee academic objectivity, the contextual integrity of the archive documents have been preserved. All materials are arranged chronologically and by topic. The collection provides the reader with the opportunity to undertake a critical review of current theses on the Armenian question. It also assists the application of contemporary academic methods to a comprehensive study of the essence of this question.
The Armenian Question in the Caucasus Commentary on documents and materials
Dadrian, a former professor at SUNY, Geneseo, currently directs a genocide study project supported by the Guggenheim Foundation. The present study analyzes the devastating wartime destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire as the cataclysmic culmination of a historical process involving the progressive Turkish decimation of the Armenians through intermittent and incremental massacres. In addition to the excellent general bibliography there is an annotated bibliography of selected books used in the study. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
The Armenian Question is part of a larger problem, formulated under the name "The Question of the Orient”, which has been brought up in different forms at different times and places. Throughout history, it is part of the games that have been played countless times against the Turkish people and state. Again, this problem constitutes a different face of the imperialist politics applied by the great states throughout the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East and Anatolia throughout history. Although those who direct the issue of "relocation” have acted individually or collectively, the target has always been the Turkish people and state. This valuable work of Kemal Çiçek seeks an answer to this question. It is an extremely rigorous and, most importantly, an impartial study. In addition, this book provides sound information not only for scholars, but also for the general reader who is interested in this problem.
Seven decades after the destruction of the Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire, the Armenian genocide remains largely ignored by governments and forgotten by the world public, even though the annihilation of Armenians was headlined around the world in 1915. Scholarly investigation of the Armenian genocide is just beginning, made more difficult by the tendency of many establishment figures to rationalize the past and the attempt of perpetrator governments and their successors to deny the past.This volume is a pioneering collective attempt to assess and analyze the Armenian genocide from differing perspectives, including history, political science, ethics, religion, literature, and psychiatry. Focusing on the general implications of denial, rationalization, and responsibility, it is particularly important as a precursor to the study of the Holocaust and other genocides.
Armenian national identity has long been associated with what has come to be known as the Armenian Genocide of 1915. Immersing the reader in the history, culture and politics of Armenia – from its foundations as the ancient kingdom of Urartu to the modern-day Republic – Gaïdz Minassian moves past the massacres embedded in the Armenian psyche to position the nation within contemporary global politics. An in-depth study of history and memory, The Armenian Experience examines the characteristics and sentiments of a national identity that spans the globe. Armenia lies in the heart of the Caucasus and once had an empire – under the rule of Tigranes the Great in the first century BC – that stretched from the Caspian to the Mediterranean seas. Beginning with an overview of Armenia's historic position at the crossroads between Rome and Persia, Minassian details invasions from antiquity to modern times by Arabs, Mongols, Ottomans, Persians and Russians right up to its Soviet experience, and drawing on Armenia's post-Soviet conflict with Azerbaijan in its attempts to reunify with the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh. This book questions an Armenian self-identity dominated by its past and instead looks towards the future. Gaïdz Minassian emphasises the need to recognise that the Armenian story began well before the Genocide 1915, and continues as an on-going modern narrative.
The destruction of the Armenians of the Ottoman Empire in 1915-16 was the greatest atrocity of World War I. Around one million Armenians were killed, and the survivors were scattered across the world. Although it is now a century old, the issue of what most of the world calls the Armenian Genocide of 1915 is still a live and divisive issue that mobilizes Armenians across the world, shapes the identity and politics of modern Turkey, and has consumed the attention of U.S. politicians for years. In Great Catastrophe, the eminent scholar and reporter Thomas de Waal looks at the aftermath and politics of the Armenian Genocide and tells the story of recent efforts by courageous Armenians, Kurds, and Turks to come to terms with the disaster as Turkey enters a new post-Kemalist era. The story of what happened to the Armenians in 1915-16 is well-known. Here we are told the "history of the history" and the lesser-known story of what happened to Armenians, Kurds, and Turks in the century that followed. De Waal relates how different generations tackled the issue of the "Great Catastrophe" from the 1920s until the failure of the Protocols signed by independent Armenia and Turkey in 2010. Quarrels between diaspora Armenians supporting and opposing the Soviet Union broke into violence and culminated with the murder of an archbishop in 1933. The devising of the word "genocide," the growth of modern identity politics, and the 50th anniversary of the massacres re-energized a new generation of Armenians. In Turkey the issue was initially forgotten, only to return to the political agenda in the context of the Cold War and an outbreak of Armenian terrorism. More recently, Turkey has started to confront its taboos. In an astonishing revival of oral history, the descendants of tens of thousands of "Islamized Armenians," who have been in the shadows since 1915, have begun to reemerge and reclaim their identities. Drawing on archival sources, reportage and moving personal stories, de Waal tells the full story of Armenian-Turkish relations since the Genocide in all its extraordinary twists and turns. He looks behind the propaganda to examine the realities of a terrible historical crime and the divisive "politics of genocide" it produced. The book throws light not only on our understanding of Armenian-Turkish relations but also of how mass atrocities and historical tragedies shape contemporary politics.