The eighteenth-century saw a radical change in the depiction of country life in English painting: feeling less constrained by the conventions of classical or theatrical pastoral, landscape painters attempted to offer a portrayal of what life was really like, or was thought to be like, in England; and this inevitably involved a distinct approach to the depiction of the rural poor. John Barrell's influential 1980 study shows why the poor began to be of such interest to painters, and examines the ways in which they could be represented so as to be an acceptable part of the décor of the salons of the rich. His discussion focuses on the work of three painters: Thomas Gainsborough, George Morland and John Constable. Throughout the book, Barrell draws illuminating comparisons with the literature of rural life and with the work of other painters. His terse and vigourous account has provided a landmark for social historians and literary critics, as well as historians of art.
00 In this interdisciplinary study, Ann Bermingham explores the complex, ambiguous, and often contradictory relationship between English landscape painting and the socio-economic changes that accompanied enclosure and the Industrial Revolution. In this interdisciplinary study, Ann Bermingham explores the complex, ambiguous, and often contradictory relationship between English landscape painting and the socio-economic changes that accompanied enclosure and the Industrial Revolution.
The 'Land Question' occupied a central place in political and cultural debates in Britain for nearly two centuries. From parliamentary enclosure in the mid-eighteenth century to the fierce Labour party debate concerning the nationalization of land after World War Two, the fate of the land held the power to galvanize the attention of the nation.
The modern media world came into being in the nineteenth century, when machines were harnessed to produce texts and images in unprecedented numbers. In the visual realm, new industrial techniques generated a deluge of affordable pictorial items, mass-printed photographs, posters, cartoons, and illustrations. These alluring objects of the Victorian parlor were miniaturized spectacles that served as portals onto phantasmagoric versions of 'the world.' Although new kinds of pictures transformed everyday life, these ephemeral items have received remarkably little scholarly attention. Picture World shines a welcome new light onto these critically neglected yet fascinating visual objects. They serve as entryways into the nineteenth century's key aesthetic concepts. Each chapter pairs a new type of picture with a foundational keyword in Victorian aesthetics, a familiar term reconceived through the lens of new media. 'Character' appears differently when considered with caricature, in the new comics and cartoons appearing in the mass press in the 1830s; likewise, the book approaches 'realism' through pictorial journalism; 'illustration' via illustrated Bibles; 'sensation' through carte-de-visite portrait photographs; 'the picturesque' by way of stereoscopic views; and 'decadence' through advertising posters. Picture World studies the aesthetic effects of the nineteenth century's media revolution: it uses the relics of a previous era's cultural life to interrogate the Victorian world's most deeply-held values, arriving at insights still relevant in our own media age.
The travel experience filled with personal trauma; the pilgrimage through a war-torn place; the journey with those suffering: these represent the darker sides of travel. What is their allure and how are they represented? This volume takes an ethnographic and interdisciplinary approach to explore the writings and texts of dark journeys and travels. In traveling over the dead, amongst the dying, and alongside the suffering, the authors give us a tour of humanity's violence and misery. And yet, from this dark side, there comes great beauty and poignancy in the characterization of plight; creativity in the comic, graphic, and graffiti sketches and comments on life; and the sense of profound and spiritual journeys being undertaken, recorded, and memorialized. Jonathan Skinner is Senior Lecturer in Social Anthropology at Queen's University Belfast. He is the author of "Before the Volcano: Reverberations of Identity on Montserrat" (Arawak Publications 2004), and co-editor of "Managing Island Life" (University of Abertay Press 2006) and "Great Expectations: Imagination and Anticipation in Tourism" (Berghahn 2011).
Die Eisenbahn gilt weiterhin als ein 'faszinierendes Phänomen' (Europäische Kommission-DG TREN, 2004) und steht im Spannungsfeld von alt und neu. Diese erste industrielle Transporttechnologie bildet(e) nicht nur den Auslöser einer in diesem Ausmaß zuvor nicht gekannten Mobilität, sondern beeinflusst(e) auch das gesamte Leben sowohl auf gesellschaftlicher als auch individueller Ebene, auf dem Land wie in den Städten. Darüber hinaus symbolisiert(e) sie wie kaum eine andere technische Innovation den Prozess der Industrialisierung und Modernisierung. Insbesondere im Gefolge eines erweiterten Kulturbegriffs eröffnen sich Möglichkeiten, über technikimmanente Geschichtsschreibungen hinauszugehen und neu über das Verhältnis zwischen Eisenbahn und Kultur nachzudenken. Um derartige, mannigfaltige Zusammenhänge erkennen und insbesondere reflektieren zu lernen, wurde im Jahr 2001 an der IFF (Wien) eine international besetzte Workshopreihe "Eisenbahn/Kultur - Railway/Culture" veranstaltetet. Der vorliegende Sonderband dokumentiert nahezu alle Beiträge - bildet somit das äußerst breite Spektrum dieses Themas ab - und soll zu weiterführenden Forschungen jenseits disziplinärer Grenzen anregen. Railway continues to be a 'fascinating phenomenon' (European Commission-DG TREN, 2004) and represent a mixture of ancient and modern. This first industrial transportation technology caused not only a mobility never known before, but it shaped public and private life in the country as well as in cities. Above that, as does no other technical innovation it symbolizes the process of industrialization and modernization. Especially in the wake of an extended notion of culture there are potentialities to surpass an inherent history of technology and to re-think about the relationship between railway and culture. Therefore, in 2001 the workshop-series "Eisenbahn/Kultur - Railway/Culture" was organized at the IFF in Vienna (Austria). This special volume brings together nearly all papers and depicts the very wide range of the subject. Furthermore, this anthology will encourage to continue such research topics beyond all disciplinary boarders.